Regauging is Free Electrical or Magnetic
A-regauging a sector of a rotary electromagnetic engine is just like
refueling a car by putting gas in its gas tank: During the regauging
operation, the system is an "open" system receiving an injection of
excess potential (stored) energy from the surrounding vacuum -- except
in the electromagnetic case the refueling is free. (See Figure 3). The
excess stored energy injected into the system from the "refueling" jump
due to A-regauging, can then be dissipated in the load during the
remainder of the rotary cycle -- just as a refueled automobile can
dissipate its additional fuel energy in powering the car, until it is
time for refueling again.
By using one or both of these two master
principles (i) A-regauging the potential energy of the system, and (ii)
use of a multivalued potential for A-regauging, electromagnetic engines
can permissibly exhibit COP>1.0, without any violation of the laws of
physics, thermodynamics, Maxwell's equations, or advanced
electrodynamics. And a totally-permanent-magnet motor can power itself
and its load.
The Johnson Force-Producing Magnetic
Figure 5 diagrammatically illustrates the operation of the
force-producing magnetic gate in Johnson's permanent magnet motor. As
Johnson has shown, by using a multivalued potential in his gates, a
rotor magnet is attracted into a highly nonlinear stator gate region
where the MVP is located. When it enters the MVP, the rotor encounters a
dramatic jump in stator's magnetic scalar potential with a change of
polarity. In turn, this produces a sudden accelerating tangential force
in the region which would otherwise have been the back-drag region. This
accelerating force propels and accelerates the rotor magnet on through
the gate and out of it.
Rigorous force meter measurements taken at
0.01 second intervals prove that this occurs as the rotor passes through
Johnson's gate. A representative plot of such force meter measurements
is shown as the dotted line in Figure 3.
Johnson thus uses a highly
nonlinear magnet assembly of special design to create an MVP in his
gate. The MVP produces a "magnetic potential jump" and a reversal of the
(otherwise) exiting back-drag on the rotor. In short, Johnson causes the
system to be automatically "refueled" in the A-regauging sector, so that
it can continue to rotate and power a load.
The Takahashi Engine
Figure 6 diagrammatically shows the scheme of operation of the
Takahashi engine. Here a set of permanent magnets, each at an angle to
the various radial lines of the device, comprises a slightly widening
spiral stator that is "almost" circular but not quite. A circular rotor
with a sector magnet is mounted inside this spiral stator. An end gap
exists in the stator as shown, so that the stator is not a completely
closed ring. The direction of rotation for the rotor is clockwise as
shown. For demonstration of the principle, the beginning air gap is 0.1
mm and the ending air gap is 5 mm.
A permanent magnet is mounted
along the perimeter of an angular sector of the rotor. It is magnetized,
say, with the north pole facing radially outwards, and the south pole
facing radially inside. In the stator, the permanent magnet north poles
are facing radially in toward the rotor, but at an angle, and the south
poles are facing radially outside but at an angle.
the north pole of the rotor is in a nonlinear magnetic field, and it
will experience a clockwise force and acceleration from position 1
(where the air gap is the minimum) to position 2 (where the air gap
If this were all there was to it, the Takahashi
motor would not be overunity because the tangential field is
conservative. When the rotor crossed the end gap in the stator between
point 2 and point 1, very sharp and dynamic braking work would be done
back upon the rotor magnet by the field of the stator magnets at point
1. This braking work would precisely equal the amount of dynamic
acceleration work that was done in accelerating the rotor magnet from
position 1 to position 2, in accordance with a distortion of Figure 1.
For an absolutely frictionless machine with no losses, the coefficient
of performance (COP) would be 1.0. Since any real machine will have at
least some friction and drag, the actual COP would be less than
Let us now utilize the notion of the magnetostatic scalar
potential to examine a new situation in the end gap.
us regard a single unit north pole in the rotor, going from position 1
to position 2 (the acceleration cycle, where the engine will deliver
shaft horsepower against a load), and then from position 2 to position 1
(where the magnetostatic scalar potential must be A-regauged to equal or
exceed the potential at position 1, in order for the rotor to continue
unabated or even further accelerate. I.e., in the separation gap, a
A-regauging operation must be done so that the "stator to inner"
potential is increased equal to or exceeding the "stator to inner"
potential of position 1.
In normal machines, the A-regauging part of
the cycle is conventionally where the design engineer forcibly inputs
energy from outside the system to do brute physical work on the machine
to forcibly wrestle its energy storage back to initial conditions. In
the past engineers have automatically assumed COP<1.0 without
exception, since their forcible RESET work was always equal to the
maximum theoretical energy output to the load during the motor part of
the cycle from point 1 to point 2, plus any losses in the "wrestling"
process and in the machine itself.
So we simply must perform the
A-regauging or RESET of the system's energy storage, without performing
tangential "back-drag" work on the rotor. In other words, we must refuse
to engage in the conventional "wrestling match." For that purpose, an
electromagnet is utilized to fill the end gap in the stator, arranged so
that when it is activated its north pole will face radially inward. A
small current activates the coil weakly, through a distributor with
breaker points. At the proper timing (i.e., when the rotor is directly
opposite the electromagnet polepiece, a set of ignition points is
sharply broken in the circuit with the coil of the electromagnet.
Momentarily, a very high potential will appear at the end of the coil as
the collapsing field is highly amplified and trying to sustain the
previous current in its previous direction. The end result is the
formation of a strong magnetostatic scalar potential (pole), of north
polarity, on the stator polepiece facing the rotor. Note that no radial
work can be done on either the stator polepiece or the rotor by
gradients of this high potential, because they cannot move
The potential in the end gap is now higher than the
potential at position one. Consequently a clockwise tangential force
field exists between the end gap potential and the lower potential at
position one. This force cannot do "back-drag" work on the fixed stator.
It cannot oppose the radial B-field, because it is orthogonal to it. An
assisting clockwise tangential force therefore appears upon the rotor,
and the rotor is accelerated and "boosted" out of the stator gap and
back past point 1. At that point the electromagnet has lost its
potential, but the engine has now been A-regauged and again is in the
clockwise acceleration field of the rotor-stator permanent
In short, the rotor perceived the sudden change of
magnetostatic scalar potential from the electromagnet in the stator gap
as a pseudo-MVP, and the system received a sharp influx of potential
energy, without work except for that lost in the electromagnet
circuitry. Since that loss can be made quite nominal by conventional
electronic practices, the engine permissibly provides COP>1.0. It can
therefore be rigged to power itself and a load simultaneously.
in an electric vehicle with necessary switching circuitry and ancillary
equipment, a properly designed Takahashi engine and its derivatives
should be capable of starting from a single ordinary battery, then
powering the vehicle agilely, powering the accessories, and recharging
its own battery -- all three simultaneously.
The Kawai Engine
Figure 7 shows eight snapshots of the rotor advance of a typical
Kawai engine, taken from Kawai's patent. This is one end rotor/stator side of a two rotor
device, where a similar rotor/stator device is on the other end of the
central shaft 11. In Figure 7A, polepiece 14 has three outward teeth 14b
dispersed equally around the circumference, alternated with three
notches. An end magnet 13 provides the source of flux passing through
the polepiece. With the electromagnets de-energized, their core
materials 16c, 16d, 16g, 16h, and 16k, 16l are shown shaded, by flux
from central magnet 13 outwards through teeth 14b.
| Figure 7a (12k jpeg)
|| Figure 7b (12k jpeg)|
| Figure 7c (11k jpeg)
|| Figure 7d (11k jpeg)|
| Figure 7e (10k jpeg)
|| Figure 7f (12k jpeg)|
| Figure 7g (12k jpeg)
|| Figure 7h (11k
In Figure 7B, electromagnets 16a, 16e, and 16d are energized. The
shaded area shows the sharp convergence of the flux from magnet 13
through polepiece 14 and the edge of teeth 14b. Since the electromagnets
are magnetized in attracting mode, the rotor will experience a torque
tending to widen the flux path from magnet 13 to the activated
electromagnets. Thus a clockwise torque exists on the rotor, and it will
start to rotate clockwise. Note also that each electromagnet is operating
independently of the other two.
As shown in Figure 7C, 7D, 7E, and 7F
the rotation of the rotor continues clockwise, widening the connecting
flux path to the three activated electromagnets. During this time the
torque on the rotor is clockwise.
In Figure 7G, the flux path to the
activated electromagnets is fully widened. Also, the leading edges of
the three teeth are just beginning to enter the domains of the next
electromagnets 16j, 16b, and 16f. This is getting similar to the
original position shown in Figure 7B. Consequently, the electromagnets
16i, 16a, and 16e are deactivated, and electromagnets 16j, 16b, and 16f
are activated. Asymmetrically, this regauges and resets the engine back
to the original starting position in Figure 7B. The action cycle begins
anew. As can be seen, in each complete rotation of the shaft, each of
the three teeth of the rotor will be A-regauged 12 times. So 36 total
A-regaugings/resettings/refuelings are utilized per shaft
In each stator coil, at energization a tooth is just
entering that coil. Energized in attractive mode with respect to the
ring magnet around the shaft, the flux in the polepiece "jumps" from
fully widened flux (and small or vanishing radial torque on the rotor)
to angled and narrowed flux (with full radial clockwise torque on the
rotor). As previously explained, the narrowed flux and its angle exert a
clockwise accelerating tangential component of force upon the rotor.
Each coil is de-energized prior to beginning to exert radial back emf
(which it would do if it remained energized as the trailing edge crossed
it and again narrowed the flux path). So the Kawai engine uses normal
magnetic attraction to accelerate the rotor for a small distance, then
A-regauges to zero attraction to eliminate the back-drag portion of the
attractive field. It A-regauges to zero as the "RESET" condition.
appreciable power and smoothness, the Kawai engine uses an extensive
number of A-regaugings per axle rotation, being 36 times on each end, or
a total of 72 for the two ends. The forcefield of each coil,
accompanying its increased magnetostatic scalar potential, is oriented
radially inward, so that radial work cannot be done by the coil on the
rotor because the rotor does not translate radially. Advantage is taken
of the initial clockwise acceleration force initially produced, and
A-regauging eliminates the counterclockwise drag or "decelerating" force
that would be produced without the A-regauging.
The major benefits of
the Kawai arrangement are that (i) a large number of A-regaugings occurs
for a single rotation of the rotor assembly, enabling high
power-to-weight ratio, (ii) each electromagnet is energized only when
positively contributing to the clockwise torque that drives the rotor,
and (iii) each coil is de-energized to A-regauge the system during those
periods when the coil would otherwise create back-drag (counterclockwise
torque) if it remained energized.
So the Kawai engine delivers what
it advertises: It dramatically reduces or eliminates the "back drag"
fields of the stator electromagnets, because there are no back-drag
fields activated in the electromagnets during the back-drag sectors. A
conservative field cycle is one in which the back-drag is equal to the
forward boost. Eliminating the back-drag portion of the cycle is a form
of A-regauging, and makes the net field highly nonconservative. Note
that again it was accomplished by a change in the magnetostatic scalar
potential, which was reset to zero by the de-energizing coil during the
back-drag portion of an otherwise conservative cycle. The Kawai engine
therefore uses A-regauging and nonconservative fields in order to
legitimately achieve overunity operation.
Because of the numerous
A-regaugings and back drag elimination, this engine definitely can
provide a COP>1.0. Placed in an electric vehicle with necessary
switching circuitry and ancillary equipment, a properly designed Kawai
engine and its derivatives should be capable of starting from a single
ordinary battery, then powering the vehicle agilely, powering the
accessories, and recharging its own battery -- all three simultaneously.
And in so doing, it complies with all the laws of physics and
Closed Loop (Self-Powering) Operation
Both the Kawai and Takahashi engines require input power, at least in
the configurations shown to date. However, both engines are technically
capable of overunity -- e.g., in his patent Kawai quotes performance
measurements indicating 318% efficiency. Obviously, such a system can be
close-looped by simply hooking it to a generator, and using positive
feedback of a portion of the generator output to run the engine while
using the remainder of the output to power a load.
The Johnson engine
is inherently already self-powering, since it requires no external power
input in the conventional fashion. One accents, of course, that in any
such self-powered engine, there is indeed a steady input of power from
the vacuum, in the violent virtual photon exchange with the particles
and atoms comprising the magnets. A magnet simply acts as a gate in that
energy exchange, as indeed does the bipolarity of an electrical power
Presently the three inventors mentioned have developed prototype
engines which (1) produce COP>1.0, and (2) apply a multivalued
potential, pseudo-multivalued potential, or A-regauging, or both. The
Johnson engine is already self-powering. Both the Takahashi and Kawai
engines are readily convertible to self-powering embodiments.
would appear that these engines should now move into full development
for introduction upon the world market.
Together with the Patterson cell, we believe that these engines will usher in a new
age of cheap clean energy for everyone.